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Definition of coefficient:
 A number or letter put before a letter or quantity, known or unknown, to show how many times the latter is to be taken; as, 6x; bx; here 6 and b are coefficients of x.
 A number, commonly used in computation as a factor, expressing the amount of some change or effect under certain fixed conditions as to temperature, length, volume, etc.; as, the coefficient of expansion; the coefficient of friction.
 Cooperating; acting together to produce an effect.
 That which unites in action with something else to produce the same effect.
Synonyms:
Usage examples:

Coefficient V. U. E. of brightness.
 "Five of Maxwell's Papers", James Clerk Maxwell. 
This ratio is called" the coefficient of friction."
 "The BirthTime of the World and Other Scientific Essays", J. (John) Joly. 
Given a missionary with a Bible in his hip pocket or a peasant with a load of brushwood on his back and the same gastric coefficient, and you will have in either case a resulting expansion for six feet of coffin ground and a fraction of Allah's mercy.
 "The Book of Khalid", Ameen Rihani.