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Definition of mathematical:
Synonyms:
accurate, abacus, pinpoint, deviation, rigorous, numerical, fine, algorithm, numeric, scientific, close, nonverbal, hairline, numeral, geometrical, binomial, precise, measurable, unquestionable, approximation, exact, average, possible, delicate, spoton, refined, calculation, countdown, analytical, algorithm, decimal place.

calculational (part of speech: adjective)
 algorithmic,
 statistical,
 computational,
 suppositional,
 valuational,
 algebraic,
 approximate,
 numerical,
 rational,
 systematical,
 methodical,
 geometric,
 proportional,
 arithmetic,
 calculational,
 judgmental
Usage examples:

But it was in those noblest and most arduous departments of knowledge in which induction and mathematical demonstration cooperate for the discovery of truth, that the English genius won in that age the most memorable triumphs.
 "The History of England from the Accession of James II. Volume 1 (of 5)", Thomas Babington Macaulay. 
Take such a statement as, " The class of people interested in mathematical logic is not very numerous."
 "Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy", Bertrand Russell. 
53. There are only two mathematical papers, and these consist almost entirely of high questions; what a Junior Op.
 "A Collection of College Words and Customs", Benjamin Homer Hall.