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Definition of multiplier:
 An instrument for multiplying or increasing by repetition or accumulation the intensity of a force or action, as heat or electricity. It is particularly used to render such a force or action appreciable or measurable when feeble. See Thermomultiplier.
 One who, or that which, multiplies or increases number.
 The number by which another number is multiplied. See the Note under Multiplication.
Synonyms:

mathematics (part of speech: noun)
 divisor,
 multiplicand,
 cube root,
 cube,
 modulus,
 algorithm,
 geometry,
 denominator,
 fraction,
 integral,
 root,
 multiplicator,
 quotient,
 dividend,
 formula,
 exponent,
 radix,
 differential calculus,
 square root,
 quadratics,
 multiple,
 trigonometry,
 coefficient,
 calculus,
 arithmetic,
 numerator,
 minuend,
 antilogarithm,
 subtrahend,
 factor,
 algebra,
 power,
 increment,
 logarithm,
 index,
 reciprocal,
 algorithm
Usage examples:

Now, take 6 as your multiplier and try to arrange the remaining eight digits so as to produce by multiplication a number containing all nine once, and once only.
 "Amusements in Mathematics", Henry Ernest Dudeney. 
In short, man is the multiplier and the mineral substance is the multiplicand in the product known as value.
 "The Economic Aspect of Geology", C. K. Leith. 
It never appeared to James Watt that the idea which flashed into his mind that Sunday afternoon while he was walking in the streets of Glasgow, would transform human life; that like a mighty multiplier it would increase the product of man's power and give him dominion, not over the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, but over tide and wind, space and time.
 "Great Inventions and Discoveries", Willis Duff Piercy.