- In cows and heifers the urethra is so short and becomes so widely dilated during the urination that the calculi easily escape in the flow of liquid and dangerous symptoms practically never appear. - "Special Report on Diseases of Cattle", U.S. Department of Agriculture J.R. Mohler.
- In the ox and ram, small calculi collect in the S- shaped curvature of the urethra, or at its terminal extremity. - "Common Diseases of Farm Animals", R. A. Craig, D. V. M..
- Before the treatment of the fracture is commenced, the surgeon must satisfy himself, by the use of the catheter and by other means, that the urethra and bladder are intact. - "Manual of Surgery Volume Second: Extremities--Head--Neck. Sixth Edition.", Alexander Miles Alexis Thomson.