Definition of Labarum:
- The standard adopted by the Emperor Constantine after his conversion to Christianity. It is described as a pike bearing a silk banner hanging from a crosspiece, and surmounted by a golden crown. It bore a monogram of the first two letters ( CHR) of the name of Christ in its Greek form. Later, the name was given to various modifications of this standard.
The bright oriental sun streamed down upon it, and as the trumpets sounded from beneath the imperial balcony, there filed into the arena the glittering troops of the empire, gorgeous in color and appointments, with lofty crests and gleaming armor, with shimmering spear- tips, prancing horses, towering elephants, and mighty engines of war and siege, with archers and spearmen, with sounding trumpets and swaying standards and, high over all, the purple labarum, woven in gold and jewels,- the sacred banner of Constantine.- "Historic Girls", E. S. Brooks.
- "The Emancipation of Massachusetts", Brooks Adams.
- "Flags: Some Account of their History and Uses.", Andrew Macgeorge.